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40 Hadith – Shaikh ul-Islam Imam Ibn Taymiyyah -:- Hadith No.8 – 3 Characteristics Of A Hypocrite – By Shaikh Zubair Ali Zai [1435H]

Tahqiq, Takhrij, Sharh

Muhadith Zubair Ali Zai

Translated Abu Ubaydah
Translated, Checked & Additional Notes
Abu Hibban & Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari

Hadith Number 8

 3 Characteristics Of A Hypocrite

Al-Imam al-‘Alim az-Zahid Jamal [1] udin Abu Zakariya Yahya Ibn Abi Mansur Ibn al-Fath Ibn Rafi’ Ibn Ali al-Harani Ibn Sayurafi informed us: and it was read to him in Shawal in the year 668 Hijri. (he said) Abul Abas Ahmad Ibn Yahya Ibn Baraka Ibn ad-Duyubaqay informed us and it was read to him and I heard it: (he said) Abu Mansur Abdurahman Ibn Muhamad Ibn Abdulwahid Ibn al-Hasan al-Qazaz informed us: it was read to him on the 21st [2] in the Month of Jamadul Ula in the year of 534 Hijri: (he said) Abu Ja’far Muhamad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhamad Ibn Umar Ibn al-Muslima [3] al-Mua’dal Imla informed us and chose the words to be dictated by our Shaikh Abu Bakr al-Khatib in the month of Safar in the year 463 Hijri: (he said) Abul Fadl Ubaydullah Ibn Abdurahman Ibn Muhamad az-Zuhri informed us: (he said) Abu Bakr Ja’far Ibn Muhamad Ibn al-Hasan Ibn al-Mustafadi al-Firyabi informed us: (he said) Qutaiba Ibn Sa’id narrated to us: (he said) Isma’il Ibn Ja’far narrated to us: from Abi Suhail Nafi’ Ibn Malik Ibn Abi Amir: from his father: from Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) that he narrated from the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) he said:

“The signs of a hypocrite are 3:

1. Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.

2. Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise).

3. If you trust him, he proves to be treacherous. (If you keep something as a trust with him, he will not return it.)”

[GRADING AND REFERENCES] – [SAHIH]

Ibn Taymiya has narrated this hadith from his chain through Imam Ja’far Ibn Muhamad al-Firyabi and this hadith is present in Ja’far Ibn Muhamad al-Firyabi’s book: the characteristics of hypocrites hadith no.1

Additionally Bukhari (hadith no.33) and Muslim (hadith no.59) and other than them have narrated it from the chain of Isma’il Ibn Ja’far.

[1] Originally the name is Kamal udin instead of Jamal udin

[2] In another manuscript instead of al-Hadi Wal-Ishrun (the 21st) it is Hadi Ishrin (21th)

[3] Originally it is al-Muslim instead of al-Muslama

[UNDERSTANDING FROM THE HADITH]

1. There are 2 types of hypocrites

a. Being a hypocrite in beliefs

These types of people are under the same ruling of the kufar in Allah’s point of view and in the hereafter. The Islamic rulings are implemented on them in this world because they portray themselves as Muslims in this life.

b. Being a hypocrite in actions

These people may be Muslims however they come under the ruling of those who are corrupt and evil.

2. This hadith has described 3 big qualities of the hypocrites. Additionally there are other qualities of a hypocrite also. For e.g. When he argues he swears

3. Lying, breaking promises and being treacherous when trusted with something are big sins.

[BIOGRAPHY OF THE NARRATOR OF THE HADITH]  

Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu)

A Summarised comprehensive discussion of Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) is as follows:

Name and lineage:

Abu Huraira Abdus Shams ad-Dusi al-Yamani (Radi Allahu Anhu)

His first name used to be Abdus Shams. (See at-Tarikh al-Kabir of al-Bukhari 6/132, and its chain is Hasan)

In one narration Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) said, “…I used to tend the sheep of my people, and I had a small kitten; so I used to place it in a tree at night, and during the day I would take it and play with it. So they named me Abu Hurairah.” (Sunan at-Tirmidhi no.3840 and he said, “Hasan Garib”, Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 4/329 and its chain is Hasan)

Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) said, “The Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) used to call me Abu Har and the people call me Abu Huraira” (al-Mustadrak 3/579 hadith no.6142, Tarikh Dimishq of Ibn Asakir 67/313 and its chain is Hasan)

The Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) addressed Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) on a number of occasions (by saying): “O Abu Huraira…” (Sahih Bukhari no.99, Sahih Muslim no.371, Darusalam no.824, and other than them)

It is established from this that the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) used to call him Abu Har and Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) and the other people (the companions and tabi’in) used to call him Abu Huraira.

Birth:

He was born approximately 20 years before the Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) migrated to Madina.

Acceptance of Islam:

He accepted Islam in the 7th year of Hijra in the same year of the Battle of Khaibar.

He was in the companionship of the Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) for 3 to 4 years. (Radi Allahu Anhu)

Students:

He had more than 800 Tabi’in students

Abu Ahmad al-Hakim al-Kabir said, “800 or more people narrated from him” (Tarikh Dimishq of Ibn Asakir 67/311)

The names of some of his students from the companions and tabi’in are listed below:
Anas Ibn Malik (Radi Allahu Anhu), Jabir Ibn Abdullah (Radi Allahu Anhu), al-Hasan al-Basri, Salim Ibn Abdullah Ibn Umar, Sa’id Ibn Abi Sa’id al-Maqbari, Sa’id Ibn al-Musayib, Sulaiman Ibn Yasar, Abu Wa’il Shaqiq Ibn Salama, Shehr Ibn Hawshab, Ta’us Ibn Kaysan, Amir ash-Shu’bi, Abdullah Ibn Abas (Radi Allahu Anhu), Abdullah Ibn Umar Ibn al-Khatab (Radi Allahu Anhu), Abdurahman Ibn Hurmaz al-A’raj, Ubaidullah Ibn Abi Rafi’, Urwa Ibn Zubair, Ata Ibn Abi Raba, Ikrima mawla Ibn Abas, Ali Ibn Husain Ibn Abi Talib, Amr Ibn Dinar, Qasim Ibn Muhamad Ibn Abi Bakr, Mujahid Ibn Jabr, Muhamad Ibn Sirin, Muhamad Ibn Ka’b al-Qurzi, Muhamad Ibn al-Munkadir, Nafi’ mawla Ibn Umar, Hamam Ibn Munabi, Abu Idris al-Khawlani, Abu Umama Ibn Sahl Ibn Hanif (Radi Allahu Anhu), Abu Salih as-Saman, Abul ‘Aliya ar-RIyahi and Abu Uthman an-Nahdi and other than them.

From the contemporaries, Shaikh Abdul Mun’im Salih al-Ali al-Izi has written about 725 of his students with their names and references. (See in defence of Abu Huraira p.g. 273, 312)

Appearance:

Imam Muhamad Ibn Sirin (Tabi’i) said, “His colour was white, he was a cheerful person with a soft heart. He used to put on red dye. He used to wear rough, worn out cotton clothes. (Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 4/333-334 and its chain is Sahih)

Virtues:

1. The Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said (in part of a hadith), “…O Allah, let there be love of these servants of yours, i.e. Abu Huraira and his mother, in the hearts of the believing servants and let their hearts be filled with the love of the believing servants…”(Sahih Muslim no.2491, Darusalam no.6396)

2. Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) once heard a lot of ahadith from the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) in one sitting, then he (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) made dua for him and after that Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) never forgot any of these ahadith. (Sahih Bukhari no.2047, Sahih Muslim no.2492)

3. Once Abdullah Ibn Umar (Radi Allahu Anhu) said to Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu), “”You used to stay with the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) most out of all of us, and you used to best memorize his Ahadith out of us.”

4. Once Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) narrated a hadith and Aisha (Radi Allahu Anha) said, “Abu Huraira has said the truth” (Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 4/332 and its chain is authentic)

5. Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) set 3 parts of every night, where he prayed 11 nawafil with his wife and son. And in this way the whole house was busy in worship. (See kitab az-Zuhd of al-Imam Ahmad no.986, kitab az-Zuhd of Abi Dawud no.298 and its chain is authentic, Hilyatul Awliya 1/382-383)

6. Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) used to carry wood himself after spending time in the marketplace, even during the time he was well off. (Kitab az-Zuhd of Abi Dawud no.297 and its chain is authentic, Hilyatul Awliya 1/384-385)

7. Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) was the enemy of those who were enemies of Allah and His Messenger (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam). (Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 4/335 and its chain is authentic)

8. Imam Shafi’I said, “The biggest memoriser of the hadith in the world was Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu). (Tarikh Dimishq of Ibn Asakir 71/253 and its chain is authentic)

9. Imam Abu Bakr Muhamad Ibn Ishaq al-Imam said the most eloquent words about Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) which is summarised as follows:

There are 4 types of people who criticise Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu)

a. A Jahmi Mu’atil (who rejects the attributes of Allah)

b. A Khariji (A takfiri who says you can go out against a muslim ruler)

c. A Qadri (A Mu’tazili who rejects the taqdir and authentic ahadith)

d. A Jahil (who is bigoted in jurisprudence and without any proof) goes against the authentic ahadith because of blind following. (See Mustadrak al-Hakim 3/513 hadith no.6176 and its chain is authentic)

10. Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) said in part of a hadith that, “I take an oath by Allah…(sometimes) I used to lay (sleep) on the ground because of hunger, and (sometimes) I used to bind a stone over my stomach because of hunger…” (Sahih Bukhari no.6452)

11. Allah gave him a great memory, which will be mentioned in more detail further on in the book.

12. Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) did the funeral prayer for A’isha (Radi Allahu Anha), which is apparent from the explanation of Imam Nafi’. (See at-Tarikh as-Sagir / al-Awsat of al-Bukhari 1/126 and its chain is authentic)

13. Hafidh Dhahabi said, “Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) was an Imam, al-Faqih, al-Mujtahid, al-Hafidh, a companion of the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam)…Sayid ul-Hufadh, al-Ithbat” (Sir A’lam an-Nubala 2/578)

Memory:

Allah the Most High gave Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) a great memory (because of the dua of the noble Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam)). Once Marwan Ibn al-Hakam al-Umawi asked him to write some hadith down and then said to him in the following year: that book has become lost. Please write those hadith down again. So he wrote them hadith down again (later on when the lost book was found) and when both books were put together for comparison there wasn’t a difference of even a word. (al-Mustadrak of al-Hakim 3/510 and its chain is Hasan) 

Knowledge of narrations:

1. Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) narrated 5374 ahadith and from these ahadith which are attributed to him, 3878 are present in Musnad Ahmad.

2. His student Hamam Ibn Munabi Yemani compiled approximately 140 ahadith that he heard from him in a collection (called Sahifa Hamam). All the ahadith are authentic in this collection and this is published.

3. He used give fatwas on religious issues in the time of the companions, and was a mufti and mujtahid alongside being the amir ul-Mu’minin in hadith.

4. There are 12 narrations attributed to him in Kitab al-Hath alal Jihad of Ibn Asakir. They are: no. 1; 8; 9; 10; 12; 18; 24; 27; 28; 34; 35; 36

In the Battle Field:

1. He was present in the battle of Khaibar with the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam). (See Tarikh Abi Zur’ah ad-Dimishqi: no.232, and its chain is authentic)

2. He was present in the following battles:

Hostilities of Wadi al-Qura, battle of Dhat ar-Riqa, conquest of Makkah, battle of Hunain, battle of Ta’if, battle of Tabuk, hostilities of the apostates, war of Yarmuk, war of Armenia and war of Jurjan. (For more details see the book: in defense of Abu Huraira pg.46-55)

An extraordinary incident: A long time after the death of Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu), a teenager said something disrespectful about Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu). A big snake came out from the roof of the Jamia Masjid and chased the teenager and when he repented (from what he said) the snake disappeared. This teenager was from the ahlul ra’i (meaning he was Hanafi). (See al-Hadith magazine: 32, pg.14)

Death:

Approximately 58 Hijri

He died in the valley of Aqiq near Madina and his body was brought back to Madina. Walid Ibn Utba Ibn Abi Sufyan prayed his funeral prayer and buried him in Baqi al-Garqad (known to the general people as Janatul Baqi) (See ad-Difa of Abu Huraira pg.167)

Shaikh Abdul Mun’im has wrote a great and beneficial book on the life and defence of Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) called, “In defence of Abu Huraira”. Also see the book called, “The virtues of the companions in the light of authentic narrations” (28th Decemeber 2011)

Source: http://www.salafiri.com/40-hadith-shaikh-ul-islam-imam-ibn-taymiyyah-hadith-no-8-3-characteristics-of-a-hypocrite-by-shaikh-zubair-ali-zai-1435h/

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